What is a water well drilling rig?In simple terms,water well drilling rigs are mechanical equipment for drilling water wells and completing operations such as downhole pipes and well washing,including power equipment and drill bits,drill pipes,core pipes,and drill frames.The following is an introduction to the classification and working principle of water well drilling rigs and the correct use of water well drilling rigs.
Composition of water well drilling rig
1.Hydraulic oil pump:It is a dual type,a large displacement pump provides power for the power head,and a small displacement pump provides power for four outrigger cylinders,lifting mast cylinders,and afterburner/lifting tackle cylinders.
2.Four outriggers:small drilling equipment consists of hydraulic cylinders and fixed frames.The level of the machine body can be adjusted at the work site to support and stabilize the machine body.
3.Mast:It is a frame structure welded by a combination of giant steel pipes,channel steels and angle steels.The inner grooves of channel steels on both sides are used as the track for the power head to run up and down to ensure the verticality of the drilling.The lifting and lowering of the well drilling mast is completed by hydraulic cylinders.
4.Power head:a mechanism with a gear reduction box.There is a mandrel with a large hole in the middle of the low-speed shaft.The upper port of the mandrel can be connected with the hose interface of the concrete pouring equipment for concrete pouring;the lower port of the mandrel passes through The blue plate connects the drill pipe and the drill bit.The high-speed shaft is driven by a large torque hydraulic motor.
System composition of water well drilling rig
1.Power system,equipment that provides energy for the whole set of drilling rigs;
2.Working system,equipment to work according to the requirements of the process;
3.Transmission system,equipment for transmitting,conveying and distributing energy for the working unit;
4.Control system,control all systems and equipment,coordinate and work accurately according to the requirements of the process;
5.Auxiliary system,equipment to assist the main system.
Classification and working principle of water well drilling rig
Water well drilling rigs can be divided into three categories:rotary water well drilling rigs,percussion water well drilling rigs,and composite water well drilling rigs.The former can be further subdivided into:large and small pot cone drills,forward and reverse circulation rotary table drills,hydraulic power head drills,and down-the-hole impact rotary drills.
Working principle of rotary water well drilling rig
The rotary water well drilling rig mainly relies on the rotary motion of the drilling tool to break the rock formation to form holes.Common ones include large and small pot cone drills,forward and reverse circulation rotary table drills,hydraulic power head drills,and down-the-hole vibration rotary drills.A simple rotary drilling rig has only a drilling device,while a well-structured rotary drilling rig consists of a drilling device and a circulating well washing device.The drilling tools of the rotary table water well drilling rig include drill pipes and drill bits.There are 4 types of nominal diameters of commonly used drill rods:60,73,76,89,102 and 114 mm.Drill bits are divided into two categories:drill bits for full drilling and drill bits for ring drilling.
Large and small pot cones use their pot cone drilling tools to rotate and cut soil layers.According to the size of the drilling tool,they are called large pot cone and small pot cone,which can be driven by manpower or power.
The rotary drilling rig commonly used for positive and reverse circulation mud washing rotary drilling rigs,namely,the positive circulation mud washing rotary drilling rig is composed of a tower,a hoist,a rotary table,a drilling tool,a mud pump,a faucet,and a motor.During operation,the power machine drives the turntable through the transmission device,and the active drill rod drives the drill bit to rotate the broken rock layer at a speed of 30-90 rpm.
Compressed air washing rotary drilling rig uses air compressors instead of mud pumps on rotary rotary drilling rigs,and compressed air instead of mud washing wells.The reverse circulation method is usually used,also known as gas lift reverse circulation.That is,the compressed air is sent to the gas-water mixing chamber in the well through the gas supply pipeline to mix with the water flow in the drill pipe to form an aerated water flow with a specific gravity less than 1.Under the gravity action of the annular water column on the periphery of the drill pipe,the aerated water flow in the drill pipe continuously rises and discharges the cuttings out of the well,flows into the sedimentation tank,and the sedimented water flows back into the well in a self-flowing manner.When this drilling rig is used at a large well depth(above 50 meters),the chip removal capacity is greater than that of a drilling rig using pump suction or jet reverse circulation,so it is suitable for large well depths and arid areas with water shortage,as well as frigid permafrost.
Some rotary drilling rigs are equipped with mud pump and air compressor at the same time,and different well washing methods can be selected according to the situation.
Hydraulic power head drilling rig is a type of rotary drilling rig.It is driven by a hydraulic motor through a reducer,and a power head that moves up and down along the tower replaces the turntable and faucet on the turntable drill to drive the drill rod and bit to rotate and cut the rock formation.Large-diameter water wells can be drilled with a large-diameter drill bit up to 1 meter in diameter.It is characterized by fast drilling speed,easy loading and unloading of the drilling tool and easy downhole pipe,and no need to lift the drilling tool when extending the drill pipe.A series of parts such as turntable,faucet,kelly.
The down-the-hole vibratory rotary drilling rig is a rotary drilling rig that drills into the rock in a combination of vibration and rotary motion.The drilling tool consists of a drill bit,a vibrator,a vibration absorber and a guide tube.The exciting force generated by the vibrator makes the entire drilling tool move with a cone pendulum.The drill bit is sleeved on the outside of the vibrator shell through a friction ring.On the one hand,it makes a horizontal circular vibration with a frequency of about 1000 rpm and an amplitude of about 9 mm with the vibrator;on the other hand,it makes 3-12 rpm around the axis of the vibrator.The low-speed rotating motion of the steel can break the rock formation,but the drill pipe does not rotate,and the vibration absorber is used to prevent the vibration from being transmitted to the drill pipe.The well is washed by compressed air reverse circulation,so that the cuttings are discharged out of the well through the duct and drill pipe in the center of the vibrator.The drilling rig has a simple structure and high drilling efficiency.The borehole diameter is about 600 mm,and the drilling depth can reach 150 meters.
Working principle of percussion water well drilling rig
Relying on the vertical reciprocating movement of the drilling tool,the drill bit hits the bottom of the well to break the rock formation.Its structure is simple,but there is no circulating well washing system,cuttings removal and drilling rig cannot be carried out at the same time,so the work efficiency is low.The drilling depth is generally within 250 meters,and some can reach 500-600 meters.The main types are as follows.
Punching cone is a simple percussion drill that uses the weight of the drill tool itself to hit the formation.The lower end of the drill tool is equipped with several sharp-angled grasping flaps that can be opened and closed.
The wire rope percussive drilling rig is composed of a mast and its top lifting pulley,wire rope,impact mechanism,drilling tools(including drill rods and bits),electric motors,etc.
Working principle of compound water well drilling rig
There are two types:One type is to add an impact mechanism on the basis of a rotary rotary drilling rig,mainly for rotary drilling.When encountering a pebble layer,the two-water well drilling rig uses impact drilling,which is adaptable to various formations.Stronger;the other type is water well drilling rigs that combine impact and rotation,such as pneumatic down-the-hole hammer drilling rigs.The down-the-hole hammer drill it uses is composed of a cylinder liner and a piston that moves up and down in the cylinder liner.